Globe Artichoke was included on one of Jefferson's first lists of vegetables grown at Monticello in 1770. His Garden Book sporadically charted the first to "come to table" and the "last dish of artichokes" from 1794 and 1825. Also known as French Artichoke, this native of southern Europe has been in cultivation since the 1500s. Globe Artichokes are not reliably hardy in Virginia, as Jefferson acknowledged in his letter to his Parisian friend Madame de Tessť in 1805: " . . . we can have neither figs nor artichokes without protection from the winter." The edible "chokes" develop by mid-summer and several can be harvested during the season. If left on the plant, they will develop into the purple, thistle-like flower.